Floral water is obtained by the same process as the essential oil, namely by steam distillation of water.The flowers are crossed by water-steam. Once it is released from the container, the steam, which is enriched by the essential oil contained by the plants, is condensed in a coil that has been kept in cold.The recovered fluid is composed by essential oil and water: The floral water is the water naturally enriched by traces of essential oils (about 0.1%).The floral water concentration will be expressed as a percentage. A floral water at 50% means that 50 kg of dry plants were required to produce 100 kg of floral water.
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), a member of the Iridaceae family, is a sterile triploid geophyte plant. Saffron is adapted to arid and semiarid regions and naturally has an annual life cycle, but it is cultivated as a perennial crop by controlling its corm growth. It is important to study the crucial factors affecting mother corm formation and growth due to their special role on the dried stigma yield of saffron.
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is used as a coloring and flavoring agent in food preparation as well as in perfumes and cosmetics. The main components of saffron stigmas are carotenoids (crocetin, crocins, α-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin), monoterpene aldehydes (picrocrocin and safranal), monoterpenoids (crocusatines), isophorones, and flavonoids. Crocins and crocetin are saffron coloring agents, while the unique aroma of saffron is related to safranal. Additionally, saffron has been employed for many purposes in traditional medicine, and therefore the pharmacological activities of saffron and its constituents have been extensively studied.
Intended Benefits/Uses or Properties